This program introduces the basic practices of controls systems and safety controls for industrial steam generating boilers. It focuses on the control and safety requirements applicable to most types of flame heated boilers from small commercial gas-fired units to large industrial multi-fuel installations.

The program will examine how control and instrumentation is designed to manage the main variables such as drum water level, furnace draft, stoichiometric fuel combustion and air assist conditions. Burner management systems are introduced with their principal features including flame detection, purge, pilot and main burner safety systems during start up and running operations.

The essential safety requirements for boilers and burners are identified and the corresponding safety interlocks with respect to purge, fuel rich, double block and bleed are explained as practical solutions in accordance with the latest safety standards.

COURSE OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this course you will learn:

  • Boiler safety control and start-up interlocks
  • Principal boiler control functions
  • Types of boilers in current use
  • Typical boiler control diagrams and their design intentions
  • Hazards associated with boiler systems
  • Principles of open and closed loop/feed forward
  • Setting up and tuning of boiler control loops
  • Safety concepts to identify principles and design
  • Impacts of level, quality and stability in boiler feed water control
  • Impact of pressure and temperature as a means of control
  • Furnace draft measurement and control with protection against implosions
  • Impact of stoichiometric burn ratio and lean air requirements
  • How to improve burner efficiency using control and analysers
  • Distinguish burner rod and ultra violet flame detection
  • Steam demand and firing rate control
  • Main steam and reheat steam temperature control are influenced
  • Flue gas analysis and fuel combustion trimming controls have on the system
  • Advanced control strategies for improved boiler plant efficiency

Course Outline

MODULE 1: INTRODUCTION

  • Objectives of boiler controls
  • Overview of boiler types


MODULE 2: ESSENTIALS OF BOILER PROCESSES

  • Boiler processes in block diagrams to show key inputs and output variables
  • Hazards of boiler operations
  • The main control functions in boilers and furnaces


MODULE 3: REVIEW OF PROCESS CONTROL

  • Principles of sensors and transmitters with examples of boilers
  • Closed loop control principles including feedback, feedforward, ratio and limiting
  • Control system hardware and software tools


MODULE 4: INSTRUMENTATION RELEVANT TO BOILERS

  • Safety instrumented controls and the impact of IEC 61511
  • Instrumentation diagrams and symbols per ISA and SAMA
  • Distributed control systems and the separation of safety systems


MODULE 5: FEEDWATER CRITERIA AND DRUM LEVEL CONTROL

  • Performance requirements: level, quality, stability
  • Characteristic responses of drum level
  • Level control solutions, 1, 2 and 3 element types
  • Level measurement problems and practices
  • Drum level safety systems


MODULE 6: FURNACE AIR

  • Performance requirements; pressures and temperatures
  • Characteristic responses and means of control


MODULE 7: DRAFT CONTROL

  • Pressure measurement methods and the pressure profile
  • Temperature control and the impact of dew point
  • Protection against implosion


MODULE 8: COMBUSTION CONTROLS

  • The combustion process and its requirements for efficiency and safety
  • Coal, oil and gas firing types
  • Stoichiometric air and excess air requirements


MODULE 9: FUEL OPTIMISATION

  • Fuel-air ratio control and its measurements
  • Firing rate controls and cross limiters for improving dynamic response
  • Methods for measurements of boiler efficiency using analysers
  • Application of optimising controllers


MODULE 10: BURNER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

  • Safety and performance requirements of pulverisers, burners and igniters
  • Furnace safety standards and regulations
  • Flame monitors and flame failure detection
  • Start up protection and sequencing
  • Furnace supervisory controls and shutdown systems


MODULE 11: STEAM TEMPERATURE CONTROL

  • Superheater and attemperator arrangements
  • Essential control requirements
  • De-superheater controls


MODULE 12: STEAM PRESSURE AND BOILER LOAD CONTROLS

  • Pressure and flow response characteristics
  • Single boiler load control
  • Multiple boiler installations and load sharing controls 

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How can an e-learning course be interactive?

Boredom can be a real danger, however, we use an interactive approach to our e-Learning – with live sessions instead of recordings.  The webinar software allows everyone to interact and involves participants in group work; including hands-on exercises with simulation software and remote laboratories where possible.  You can communicate with text messages, or live VoIP speech, or can even draw on the whiteboard during the sessions.

 

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